The most active aspect of our health system, immunological nutrition, is essential to the proper functioning of human body. Health management is becoming an issue due to the current frantic pace of life. The ideal alternative to health management is to offer the necessary nutritional components in a ready-to-consume form that may quickly and easily be absorbed by the body. In recent years, using probiotics to control digestive and immune health has gained popularity. It has been made possible to use CRISPR technology to introduce foreign DNA into many different bacterial species by tailoring the CRISPR tools to meet the needs of the intended species. This work uses the CRISPR-Cas system to create a probiotic by modifying the genome of the chosen strain of probiotic bacteria and offering the most effective choice for health management as per the review done by Pandey et al. (2022).
Based on studies demonstrating that the gut microbiota defends against a wide range of diseases, probiotics have therapeutic effects in terms of pharmaceutical application. Studies show that compared to their conventional counterparts that have some gut flora, germ-free animals are much more prone to illness. Any number of bacteria may gain immunity as a result of this differentiation. Although it is impossible to say for sure because many microorganisms are hazardous to humans, research indicates that it would also be beneficial to people. In our drive to enhance our health and way of life, probiotics have become the most important part of our diet, whether as supplements or as a fortification. In order to maintain a healthy gut microbiome and, by extension, a healthy life, probiotic microorganisms, which are living bacteria and yeasts that operate as body soldiers, help us fight against harmful bacteria from abroad and other strains that may disrupt it. The use of CRISPR tools on a wide range of different microbes, including Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, yeasts, and human cells, has been demonstrated recently. The Cas9 protein from S. pyogenes, which functions effectively in numerous biological settings, had no known place of origin. Even though Cas9 comes from a variety of origins and different Cas proteins may be better appropriate for particular organisms, these uses portend well for the future application of CRISPR technology to the wide diversity of critters that make up our microbiome. As we’ve demonstrated, CRISPR-Cas systems can be easily adapted to other species. But depending on the kind and potency of DNA repair mechanisms present in bacteria, the outcome of Cas nuclease DNA cleavage varies greatly. The greatest obstacle to the widespread use of these techniques to change the composition of the microbiome is the difficulty of introducing foreign DNA into many bacterial species.
According to studies, probiotics have been shown to be effective in treating rotavirus-caused diarrhea in young children, antibiotic-induced diarrhea in adults, and diarrhea picked up while travelling. In impoverished nations, diarrhea is the leading cause of newborn mortality and a serious disabling condition in adults. The viability of probiotics in fermented dairy products can be impacted by a variety of variables, including oxygen, nutrient levels, and acidity. It is straightforward to understand complex metabolic pathways in the probiotics’ bio-system thanks to computational methods. In silicon metabolic engineering in bacteria has benefited industrial microbiology, agricultural microbiology, and medical microbiology. Numerous silicon methods are frequently utilized to enhance cellular properties through metabolic engineering and to better understand the metabolic pathways of cellular metabolic networks. The development of new therapeutic avenues for metabolic disease, immunological disease, infectious disease, and even neurological issues is aided by the increased understanding of probiotics’ effects on human health. The results of current microbiome-targeting strategies are frequently unpredictable due to our limited understanding of the complex interactions that take place within microbial populations and with the human immune system. CRISPR technology can be used to study the biology of bacteria, contribute to the development of new drugs, and play a significant part in complex ecosystems.
The author is currently designated as Assistant Professor at Axis Institute of Technology and Management http://axiscolleges.org